Civil engineering is a vast field that encompasses a wide range of disciplines and specializations. It is a profession that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of infrastructure projects such as buildings, bridges, roads, tunnels, and other structures. In reality, engineering encompasses several branches, divided into specialized areas and disciplines. These include construction and management, structure, geotechnics, water and architecture.
All of these projects require a different experience, extensive knowledge of mathematics and physics for the projects in general to be a success. Construction engineering is one of the important branches of civil engineering. This branch deals with the planning, construction and maintenance of structures such as buildings, bridges, towers, etc. Geotechnical engineering consists of analyzing subterrestrial soil, rock, foundations, etc.
Structural engineering is the branch that deals with the design and structural analysis of structures such as buildings, bridges, etc. Surveys and levelings are carried out to locate and measure property lines, the design of buildings, roads, bridges, etc. The planning stage of transportation engineering includes technical forecasting decisions and political factors as parameters. Technical forecasting of passenger trips involves a specific transportation planning model that requires certain input data such as estimation of trip generation, trip distribution, choice of mode of transport, determination of route. Intricate transportation models may require more input parameters than usual. The transport engineer must also take into account the behavior of the users.
The design stage in transport engineering consists of estimating the dimensions of transport facilities, calculating the requirements for materials and thicknesses to be used in the geometric design of the road pavement. In addition to these processes, logistics management, network analysis, financial evaluation and policy operations are also essential for the design and construction of pavements. The purpose of geotechnical engineers is to investigate various factors and geological properties by using principles of soil and rock mechanics to devise forms that can be used for efficient construction techniques. The analysis, design and construction of foundations, embankments, embankments, tunnels, retaining walls, levees, docks, landfills, roads and other similar structures supported or made of soil include geotechnical engineering. Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely and conducive to a dynamic community. Civil engineers apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial industrial and public works projects of all sizes and construction levels. Environmental engineering is concerned with protecting the public from destructive environmental effects as well as protecting the environment from the impacts of human activity and climate change.
To adapt to the pace of development in construction technologies all construction engineers must perform and manage construction operations more efficiently and effectively than in current fortuitous situations. Materials engineering has been at the forefront of academic research due to recent media attention to nanoscience and nanotechnology. To pursue a career as a seismic engineer one must study earth science and the design and construction of structures to withstand earthquakes. Water resources engineering deals with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource).A structural engineer typically has in-depth knowledge of physics mathematics material properties such as hardness density volume modulus tensile strength strength. Structural engineers can work on several types of structures including skyscrapers bridges tunnels.
Coastal engineering deals with the management and protection of coastal areas from floods erosion and other environmental factors. Among the various types of civil engineering geotechnical engineering is concerned with exploring the properties of land on which a construction project will be carried out. Once certified an engineer is designated as a professional engineer (in the United States Canada South Africa) chartered engineer (in most Commonwealth countries) chartered professional engineer (in Australia New Zealand) or European engineer (in most countries in European Union). After understanding all these aspects a Geotechnical Engineer evaluates the viability of a project.